Which System Consists of Nerves That Initiate Communication?

(A) The central nervous system

(B) The somatic nervous system

(C) The parasympathetic nervous system

(D) The peripheral nervous system

The correct answer is (D) The peripheral nervous system.

Humans and most animals have a central and peripheral nervous system. 

There are three main parts of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the brain, spinal cord, and cerebellum. 

A peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and neurons that communicate between subdivisions or connect the PNS to the CNS.

It is made up of a large network of nerves that connect to the brain and spinal cord. All the neurons that sense and transmit information to the central nervous system are part of the peripheral nervous system.

Further categories of the peripheral nervous system include the autonomic system, which is responsible for actions taken involuntarily, and the somatic system, which is responsible for voluntary actions.

How peripheral system initiates communication

The peripheral nervous system is composed of bundles of nerve fibers called axons, which transmit information to and from the brain. The autonomic nervous system is the part of your peripheral nervous system that innervates involuntary structures within your body, such as your heart, smooth muscles, and glands.

There are three main functions of the peripheral nervous system:

  1. Transporting motor commands to all voluntary striated muscles of the body.
  2. Communicating sensory data from the body’s external environment to the brain (except visual information, transmitted via optic nerves from the retina to the brain).
  1. Controlling autonomic functions such as blood pressure or sweating.

Kinds of Peripheral Nerves

Peripheral nerves can be divided into three fundamental types:

  1. Sensory: These nerves allow you to feel pain and other sensations by connecting the brain and spinal cord to your skin.
  1. Autonomic: Regulates involuntary functions (e.g., blood pressure, digestion, heart rate).
  1. Motor: Stimulates muscle movement by connecting the brain and spinal cord.

The brain transmits a message to the spinal cord when we move. Thereafter, nerves carry messages to the necessary muscles so that contraction and movement can take place. Similar to this, when we touch something, sensory information is sent from the nerves to the spinal cord and then to our brains to be interpreted.