Introduction

Communication is a two-way process of conveying information, ideas, feelings, opinions through a channel, either verbally or non-verbally.

Meaning of communication according to the different authors

According to Leland Brown•, “communication is the transmission and interchange of facts, ideas, feelings or course of action.”

As per Davis•, “communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one another.” 

According to Allen Louis • “communication is the sum of all the things one person does; when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding”.

Importance of communication

Researches from top consultants have cleared that 85% of our carrier success depends on our communication skills.

Importance of communication
  • Based on Coordination and cooperation

The up lines interact with its lines for the effective working of the organization. This interaction helps in bringing up Coordination and cooperation among the members of an organization.

  • Based on decision making

For taking any decision or for solving any query, there is a requirement of accurate and relative information, which comes through interaction among colleagues and is only possible through communication ( it might be written or verbal).

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  • In increasing managerial efficiency

Several employees are in any organization, and different authorities are given to them to get their responsibilities done. So to achieve the purpose, the employees are expected to perform accordingly when these tasks are properly communicated to them so that they properly get to know what and how the task should be carried.

  • Development in leadership quality

There should be a two-way flow of communication when the top-level get interacted with its subordinates. When top authorities frame rules, it is always advisable to consult employees to create a better relationship.

  • Smooth working of the enterprise

In establishing any enterprise, there is a need for communication for any process, whether it is the hiring processgiving guidance to the subordinates, or motivating the team members.

  • In promoting cooperation and peace

Communication is essential for mutual understanding between two parties that have been apart due to any misunderstanding. Therefore communication aids in solving all such troubles.

Classification of Communication 

Based on communication channel

  • Verbal communication

Verbal communication is the type of communication used to share information with other people either in the written form or by speaking to them. You usually communicate verbally in delivering speeches, announcements at train stations, leaving voice mails, face-to-face communication, meetings, interviews, in the business field, and many other areas.

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  • Non-Verbal communication

Communication that involve non-verbal elements (like symbols, expressions etc ) to share your information and don’t include any spoken or written piece.

Some of the examples of non-verbal communication are

  • An individual nodding his head or giving expressions through hands interprets some meaning.
  • The honking of the horn, again and again, shows a person’s aggressive behavior.
  • Traffic light signals denote the implications of each light.

Based on style and purpose

  • Formal

Formal communication denotes the stream of official advice through proper, classified stations and avenues. The flow of information is regulated and also demands willful work be correctly communicated. Suitable communication follows a hierarchical arrangement and chain of control. The collection usually is high down, by leaders in various sections and senior staff at the company, which funnel to lower grade employees. Employees will follow proper communication stations while performing their duties.

  • Informal

Informal communication also known as grapevine. The informal communication process is your contrary strategy of communication that is formal. Within this method, the communication was created without following any given rules of this policy. Informal communication plays an essential function to use the business tasks. Once the employees can’t see the topic material of their communicating, they could speak with their jurisdiction anywhere regarding the subject, like from the table or at the park or at the bar.

Communication Process

The process of communication starts with the sender’s ideas and is followed in 8 steps which are explained further.

Communication Process
  • Sender

The sender is the initiator of any communication. The message can be written, verbal or nonverbal, depending on the type of message sent. The sender gives an intended time limit to his desired receiver for the feedback.

  • Message

The message is an essential element of the entire process of communication. It is the information/advice that the sender wants to direct to the recipient. Any statement can be either receiver-oriented or sender-oriented.

  • Encoding

The sender will now encode the idea or information into the message, keeping in mind the recipient’s level of understanding and find out the best way of interpreting the message by choosing the correct mode of communication, it can be a video message, audio call, face to face communication or any expressions or can be any other way also.

  • Channel

Channel is the way or the medium through which the message is transmitted to the receiver. The message can be transmitted via any channel like face to face, telephonic calls, emails, letters, nonverbal cues such as gestures, symbols, etc.

  • Receiver

A receiver is a person who is targeted to decode the message. He will understand the message as per his understanding level and interpret the message’s meaning.

  • Decoding

It is essential to make the sender clear that there is no distortion of the message sent through the sender. The communication is referred to as effective communication if the letter sent by the sender conveys the same meaning as he intended to interpret.

  • Feedback

Now receiver will revert to the sender for the desired response and assure him that there is no distortion of the message meanwhile. And if the message is properly sent to the receiver, then the communication is considered effective communication.

7 c’s of communication

7 c's of communication
  • Completeness

The message told should be complete and should bring some desirable results. It should have all the necessary details and facts related to that topic.

  • Clarity

The material should be concrete and concise. The purpose of communication should be clear to the sender. Good words will make the message clear to the receiver. One should construct familiar, straightforward language to adequately understand the statement by the desired party.

  • Concreteness

The message should be specific, definite, and should be relevant to the purpose of communication. Or can say one should use particular facts and figures to demonstrate the desired message.

  • Correctness

Correctness is labeled as proper use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling. The level of language should be taken care of according to the receiver’s understanding.

  • Conciseness

The message should not be long enough to make the recipient irritated. It should contain only relevant material and should not be too wordy. One should avoid using repetitive stuff in the content.

  • Consideration

It is to think of the communication according to other’s viewpoints. One should focus on YOU instead of I and WE. One should show audience benefits through communication.

  • Courtesy

It is an essential and advantageous part of communication, especially in business. One should answer promptly to the mails with sincerity. And there should be the use of proper expressions that shows respect to the other party.

Communication Barriers

Communication is not always successful. Specific barriers in communication might affect the accuracy, efficiency, and clarity of the message. These barriers affect the purpose of communication. If there is any issue in frequency from either side of the channel, i.e., sender side or the receiver side, automatically, it will evoke barriers. Therefore following are some hurdles to this communication.

Communication Barriers

Semantic/language barriers

Suppose there is faulty language, defective translation, or a message containing more technical terms. In that case, it is a possibility that the news will not provide any clarity at the receiver’s end.

Also, suppose the sender is not apparent of the message’s assumptions. It might also create problems in encoding the note and might generate different evaluations or different meanings to the content.

Individual / emotional / psychological barriers

The problem of this barrier arises due to the differences in individual competencies to think and act. It is also because of personal skills in receiving transmitting information.

It includes poor Listening, improper reading skills, and adverse physiological conditions such as

  • Premature evaluation Evaluating the message before hearing it completely can generate a wrong interpretation of the message at the receiver’s end and become a barrier.
  • Inattentive behavior If the receiver is not attending to the message attentively or is not present there intellectually, this will also create a barrier to the communication.
  • Loss of transmission In case there is any distortion in the message due to the channel or medium used, the information might generate the meaning, which is not the same as the sender want it to be.
  • Under reliance source If there is any confusion at the receiver’s end regarding the message’s reference, it will not fulfill its purpose.
  • An incomplete communication process if any of the communication process elements is inappropriate, it will also affect the communication.
  • Assumptions If you start assuming the matter your way in between the communication, which is not interpreted by any of its details, the communication will also face a barrier.
  • Filtering If the receiver is only taking out the information of his interest and rejecting other details will lead to ineffective communication flow.

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Organizational barriers

This type of barrier occurs due to designation, power, authority, or status problems. Following are some other types of organizational barriers to the communication

  • Organizational attitude If the organization is authorized, then the employees will be entirely restricted to their proper attitude towards everything, which will hamper the communication.
  • Structural complexities When an individual is a part of an authorized unit, there are some protocols for the proper functioning of that organization due to which an individual does everything accordingly.
  • Status of relationship: The nature of the relationship decides the individual’s behavior towards that person in power.
  • Inadequate organizational facilities If any organization does not have proper communication facilities like the right channels or suitable mailing system, the communication is affected.
  • Noise within the organization may also distort the message to be sent, hence becoming the communication barrier.

Intercultural Barriers

The same things might have different meanings in different cultures, leading to a communication gap and becoming a cross-cultural barrier in communication. example from nonverbal communication

Interpersonal Barrier

Unwillingness to participate in communication or to explore the ideas, views, and opinions of other parties might become a significant barrier to any communication process. It might be getting uninterested in hearing others and only be heard by others, giving rise to poor communication.

  • Participation interest If an individual is not interested in participating in the communication, it is challenging to handle such situations and become a barrier.
  • Exploring interest The one who is not interested in sharing his view, details or ideas cannot be helped to discuss the discussion and lead to incomplete communication effectively.

How to overcome the communication Barriers

  • Use of simple language The proper use of words should be preferred for practical and accessible understanding to the receiver.
  • Active Listening It is essential for the completion of the communication process. Unless all the necessary details got exchanged between both parties, the purpose of communication is not attained.
  • Proper selection of media The proper selection of channels should be considered depending on the content of the message to be sent.
  • Feedback The feedback should be sent so as to make it clear to the sender that there is no distortion in the message.
  • Avoid complicated wording The message should be very clearly understood to the receiver and should be organized according to the receiver’s viewpoint.
  • Elimination to unnecessary details The matter should be apparent and should not be containing any unrelated data.